The following article is primarily based on a discussion of radiocarbon dating found in The Biblical Chronologist Volume 5, Number 1. Full details and references can be found there. Radiocarbon dating is based on a few relatively simple principles. There are many carbon atoms in our environment. The vast majority of these are 12C pronounced “c twelve” , the stable isotope of carbon. However, cosmic radiation constantly collides with atoms in the upper atmosphere. Part of the result of these collisions is the production of radiocarbon 14C, pronounced “c fourteen” , carbon atoms which are chemically the same as stable carbon, but have two extra neutrons. Radiocarbon is not stable; over time radiocarbon atoms decay into nitrogen atoms. This tendency to decay, called radioactivity, is what gives radiocarbon the name radiocarbon. The atmosphere contains many stable carbon atoms and relatively few radiocarbon atoms.
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC.
The following material has been taken from a sheet entitled Several Faulty Assumptions Are Used in all Radiometric Dating Methods. Carbon 14 is used for this example: which was put out by Dr. Hovind. Dr. Hovind (R1): The atmospheric C is presently only 1/3 of the way to an equilibrium value.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.
At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column. Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates.
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
There are lots of ways to guesstimate ages, and geologists knew the earth was old a long time ago and I might add that they were mostly Christian creationist geologists. But they didn’t know how old. Radiometric dating actually allows the measurement of absolute ages, and so it is deadly to the argument that the earth cannot be more than 10, years old. Radiometric methods measure the time elapsed since the particular radiometric clock was reset. Radiocarbon dating, which is probably best known in the general public, works only on things that were once alive and are now dead.
This paper provides quantitative data that, in many cases, open source software / free software is equal to or superior to their proprietary competition. The paper examines market share, reliability, performance, scalability, scaleability, security, and total cost of ownership; it also comments on non-quantitative issues and unnecessary fears.
Carbon 14 is used for this example: This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10, years old. The above is offered as a simple fact of research. Knowing how faulty creationist “facts” can be, let’s do a little research of our own. One suspects that the scientific world would not be using the carbon method if it were so obviously flawed.
Could it be that the whole scientific community has missed this point, or is it another case of creationist daydreaming? This argument was popularized by Henry Morris , p. In another creationist, Robert L. Whitelaw, using a greater ratio of carbon production to decay, concluded that only years passed since carbon started forming in the atmosphere! The argument may be compared to filling a barrel which has numerous small holes in its sides.
We stick the garden hose in and turn it on full blast.
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
Reliability Theory and Practice (Dover Civil and Mechanical Engineering) [Igor Bazovsky] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Written by a pioneer in the development of reliability methods, this text applies statistical mathematics to the analysis of electrical.
Click here to move directly to the list of machine-made dating questions. Machine-made bottles will exhibit most or all of the diagnostic characteristics explained and illustrated below. It should be noted that features 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are primary indicators of machine-made manufacture. Feature 2 mold seam diameter is not as strongly diagnostic as the primary indicators as mouth-blown bottles sometimes can have very fine mold seams.
Feature 7 describes a couple glass related features that are quite consistent in machine-made bottles, but not diagnostic, i. Click on the machine-made beer bottle picture above to see an illustration of this bottle showing the major diagnostic characteristics of a typical machine produced bottle. Vertical side mold seams which usually see the Note box below point 3 for an exception run up to the highest point of the finish and often onto the extreme top finish surface i.
The statement about machine-made bottles may seem contradictory finer but more visually distinct but is a function of the higher machine blowing pressure. Most machine-made bottles have mold seams about the thickness of a hair while most visible mouth-blown mold seams tend to be several times as thick, higher, but more rounded. Mold seam thickness and how high it protrudes [height] is of only moderate use in telling a machine-made bottle from a mouth-blown bottle, though if a bottle fragment has a hair fine mold seam, it is highly likely to be from a machine-made bottle.
Abstract Background The duration of untreated psychosis DUP has been associated with a wide range of clinical outcomes, and is considered to be one of the key parameters in managing clinical high risk and first episode psychosis patients. However, considerable discrepancies exist in the way that DUP is estimated in different studies. There is no standard or consensus on which method is most reliable and valid for assessing DUP. Methods This review aimed to quantitatively assess different DUP measurement instruments and definitions by comparing their inter-rater reliability, and their strength of validity in predicting biological and clinical outcomes.
Results Nine instruments designed for measuring DUP were found.
Sep 24, · Guidance for Industry, Q7A Good Manufacturing Practice Guidance for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old. If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.
I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions. Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues. At the start, let me clarify that my main concern is not the age of the earth, the moon, or the solar system, but rather the age of life, that is, how long has life existed on earth.
Many dating methods seem to give about the same ages on meteorites. Thus radiometric dating methods appear to give evidence that the earth and meteorites are old, if one accepts the fact that decay rates have been constant.
What is seen is that the maximum number of manuscripts that were used were in the preparation of the UBS’ Greek New Testament 3rd Edition , i. This is consistent with the fact that the superiority of the early text-type in the New Testament manuscripts outweighs the numerical superiority of manuscripts. Furthermore, we should add that no matter how many manuscripts the evangelicals and the apologists claim to have for their scripture, it is of little or no use as long as the manuscript tradition of the New Testament is non-uniform down to a sentence.
No two manuscripts of the New Testament anywhere in existence are alike. For example, Metzger says:
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.. The method was developed in the late s by Willard Libby, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in It is based on the fact that radiocarbon (
But concerns loom about OS vendor profitability. Over three months CIOs and financial directors in financial services, retail and public sector were interviewed for this survey. CNet news commented on this study with additional commentary about open source vs. This data was determined by Gartner Dataquest, and reported in C Net. In a survey of business users by Forrester Research Inc. A survey found that
Creation vs. Evolution
This article was authored by Michael Gleghorn and Rodger Young. She tends to understand things best when she can visualize them in some way. Thus, week-by-week, as she readied herself for class, she also prepared a wide array of graphically-designed visuals of the written contents of Scripture. Everything was going fairly well until she came to the Old Testament books of Kings and Chronicles. Since these books give us a great deal of information about the kings of Israel and Judah, including the order in which they reigned, the lengths of their reigns, and so on, she decided to create some charts that would present all of this information visually.
Cash in Advance. Receiving payment by cash in advance of the shipment might seem ideal. In this situation, the exporter is relieved of collection problems and has immediate use of the money.
Idealized and simplified diagram of the Grand Canyon There are a number of lava flows on the plateau that the canyon is cut into yellow in Figure 1, above. These lava flows are Cenozoic in age, and some of them spill into the canyon. The walls of the canyon are mostly cut into horizontal rock layers of Paleozoic age green in Figure 1, above. There is an angular unconformity at the bottom of the Paleozoic layers.
An angular unconformity is the result of tilting and eroding of the lower layers before the upper ones are deposited. These tilted and eroded layers are Precambrian in age blue in Figure 1, above. The geological relationships of the various formations are quite clear. The lava flows which spill into the canyon must be younger than the canyon. The canyon must be younger than the rock layers that it cuts into.
The sediments above the angular unconformity must be younger than the sediments below it.
Truth of the Bible
In analyzing why certain critical scholars may be inclined to favor later dates, the first reason that would come to mind is, as a liberal biblical critic, one may be trying to find a way to shake the historicity and reliability of Gospel claims. The reason why they would seek to separate the writing of the documents to the life of the original disciples has to do with the concept of the Gospels containing mythology.
Some of these scholars enter the dating arena with the notion that the gospels contain a degree of mythology miracles, virgin birth, resurrection, etc , and because of this they date the books with an innate bias for later dates. Sadly, some scholars build from this bias when the reverse should be attempted. This then allows them to analyze certain scriptural claims in light of mystified information, and thus oversee certain crucial Christian and biblical statements.
With these two opposing views, and the importance not only behind the dates, but the ramifications dating itself brings to their opposing arguments, we can understand how important it is to explore the possibility of dating the Gospels.
Common Creationist Criticism’s of Mainstream Dating Methods By Chris Stassen Part of Stassen’s FAQ file The Age of the Earth, which also deals with many other young-Earth assertions besides radiometric dating. Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale – Circular Reasoning or Reliable Tools.
Questionnaires can contain both open questions and closed questions and participants record their own answers. Interviews are a type of spoken questionnaire where the interviewer records the responses. Interviews can be structured whereby there is a predetermined set of questions or unstructured whereby no questions are decided in advance.
The main strength of self-report methods are that they are allowing participants to describe their own experiences rather than inferring this from observing participants. Questionnaires and interviews are often able to study large samples of people fairly easy and quickly. They are able to examine a large number of variables and can ask people to reveal behaviour and feelings which have been experienced in real situations.
However participants may not respond truthfully, either because they cannot remember or because they wish to present themselves in a socially acceptable manner. Social desirability bias can be a big problem with self-report measures as participants often answer in a way to portray themselves in a good light. Questions are not always clear and we do not know if the respondent has really understood the question we would not be collecting valid data.
If questionnaires are sent out, say via email or through tutor groups, response rate can be very low. Questions can often be leading. That is, they may be unwittingly forcing the respondent to give a particular reply. Therefore psychologists often carry out semi-structured interviews which consist of some pre-determined questions and followed up with further questions which allow the respondent to develop their answers.